Henry Hsieh畢業自紐約大學，以及畢業自美國紐約International Culinary Center及義大利帕瑪ALMA餐飲學校，是米其林一星餐酒館Longtail與原木柴燒餐廳Wildwood Live Fire Cuisine的營運總監。不過他總是說「叫我Your friend at Longtail就好」，Henry熱愛美食更愛分享美食，對餐飲業有獨到的觀察，他現在要以幽默風趣與富文化視角的專欄文字來分享他對美食與餐飲的所見經歷。
TEXT HENRY HSIEH TRANSLATION MICK WU IMAGE HENRY HSIEH
Ladies and gentlemen, allow me to introduce to you, the Four Pillars of Pasta. Pasta is different all over Italy, but in the Roman tradition, in what is the Lazio region, there are four true rock stars: Gricia, Amatriciana, Cacio e Pepe, and Carbonara. I call them The Beatles of Pasta. You will see these four names make appearances all over menus, frequently together, in Rome and much of central Italy. As with anything Italian, every chef has a different recipe and you can debate the origin of these dishes for days. The first three, the story goes, came from the shepherds of the Apennine Mountains. Using what they could fit in their rucksacks, which was extremely limited, they typically carried guanciale or cured pork cheeks, Pecorino Romano a kind of sheep’s milk cheese, pepper and tomatoes. The Romans have been cooking with few and humble ingredients for centuries. This is also why an Italian will always tell you the beauty of cuisine is in its simplicity. Less is more. The ability to take few ingredients and create something greater than the sum of its parts is the essence of Cucina Italiana. Though Carbonara has a slightly more recent history, these four pastas all use a combination of these ingredients.
各位女士與先生們，請容我鄭重向各位介紹義大利麵的四大台柱。義大利不同區域各有不同的義大利麵風格，不過以羅馬傳統的觀點來看，以及羅馬城所處的中義拉齊奧大區（Lazio），義大利麵有四大搖滾巨星，分別是醃嘴邊肉起司麵（Gricia）、醃嘴邊肉番茄麵（Amatriciana）、胡椒起司麵（Cacio e Pepe）與醃嘴邊肉蛋麵（Carbonara）。我叫這四種麵為義大利麵界的披頭四。你可以在羅馬以及絕大多數中義地區的菜單上看見這四種麵的名字（往往會一起出現）。就跟所有的義大利文化一樣，每個廚師都有這四種麵各自獨家食譜，而且也同樣可以針對起源爭辯個老半天。傳說前三種麵的起源，是來自亞平寧山脈上的牧羊人。在山上牧羊的牧羊人要做飯食時，他們就用也不是很大的背包裡所能裝得下的食材來做，牧羊人的背包裡通常都會裝有醃豬頰肉（Guanciale）、羅馬綿羊起司（Pecorino Romano）、胡椒與番茄。羅馬人做菜用料就是這麼樸實與簡單，而且已經這樣好幾個世紀了，這也是為何義大利人老是跟你說他們的料理講求簡單就是美，少即是多，義大利料理的核心精神正是在於講求如何用最少的食材創造出超乎食材整體總和。醃嘴邊肉蛋麵雖然是近代才有的，但這義大利麵四大台柱全都是用上述食材組合而成。
Let’s begin with the grandfather of them all, Pasta alla Gricia. You may have already heard of the other three, but the lesser-known Gricia is the one that started it all. The more widely accepted explanation of its origin was that this dish originated from the town of Grisciano, in the Apennines around 400AD. Grisciano was a small trading town and a gateway to Rome, and thus the popularity of the dish spread to the capital and the rest of the Lazio region quite quickly. Another explanation of the origin was that it came from the bakers in Rome, or the grici from the canton of Grisons. The grici were superb at making delicious food with relatively few ingredients, as they were quite poor. This kind of cucina povera or peasant cooking is a very important part of Italian cooking. The ingredients are simple: pasta, guanciale, pecorino, and pepper. Outside of Italy it is more infrequent that it appears on menus, but people are quickly learning about it and loving it. If I see it on the menu there is a very high chance I will order it.
我們就先從這四大台柱中祖師爺級的醃嘴邊肉起司麵（Pasta alla Gricia）講起。你可能已經聽過其他三種麵，但比較沒那麼多人聽過的Gricia可以說是其他三種麵的起源。至於Gricia又是起源自哪裡？一個較廣為接受的說法是它誕生在西元400年亞平寧山脈上的小鎮格里西亞諾（Grisciano）。格里亞西諾在以往是一座貿易小城，而且是通往羅馬的重要關口，因此在格里西亞諾流行的Gricia也就自然地快速傳到首都羅馬，以及周遭整個拉齊奧大區。另一種起源說法是誕生自羅馬裡頭來自瑞士格西森州（Canton of Grisons）給稱作Grici的麵包師傅。這些格西森麵包師傅因為比較窮的關係，而成了懂得以最少食材製作出最美味料理的能手。如此的「貧窮料理」（Cucina Povera）或農民料理是義大利料理重要的核心之一。用料也相當簡單，就是麵、醃嘴邊肉、綿羊起司與胡椒。出了義大利，就不太會在菜單上看到這道麵，不過人們也都快速地認識這道麵以及愛上它。我如果在菜單上看到的話點它的機率可是很高的。
1) Cook the pasta in salted boiling water (I prefer spaghetti or rigatoni)
2) Cut the guanciale into strips, sauté until crispy, discard rind
3) Add pasta into the pan
4) Add fresh cracked pepper
5) Add grated pecorino and toss off the fire so the cheese doesn’t become stringy
6) Serve with a touch more Pecorino
From Gricia comes the mighty Amatriciana. Simply put, it is Gricia with tomatoes. Tomatoes were not available in Italy until after the 16th century when the Spanish first brought them back from South America and specifically Peru. The fruit was so delicious the Italians use it now in much of their cuisine, and they did exactly that with Gricia. Amatrice, about two hours from Rome, is a little town in Abruzzo that claims to be the birthplace of Amatriciana. If you tell them Amatriciana is from Rome, you would not make too many friends there. The first written record of the Amatriciana is from the book L’Apicio Moderno written by Francesco Leonardi in 1790AD. Now, it is one of the most popular pasta dishes in the region and much throughout Italy. The official recipe however, is hotly contested. I was taught to use exactly the same ingredients as the Gricia, only add tomato sauce. There are some though, who insist on a little garlic, or onion, and the occasional sprinkle of hot chili flakes. At school, I recall watching a prominent Roman chef cook his version of Amatriciana in a room full of chefs. Not only did he add onions, but also a touch of balsamic vinegar. It tasted absolutely divine to me, but I haven’t heard that many Italians curse at the same time!
對Amatricianan最早的文字紀錄出現在1790年由義大利廚師Francesco Leonardi所寫的食譜書《當代食譜》（L’Apicio Moderno），現在Amatriciana已經是阿布魯佐大區乃至於整個義大利都家喻戶曉的一道料理。至於怎樣的做法才是最正宗？可說至今仍爭辯不休，而我學到的作法是用到的食材跟Gricia完全一模一樣，差別在於加上番茄醬。有些做法會要你加一點大蒜或洋蔥，以及再灑上一點辣椒末。我記得在學校時看過一位知名的羅馬主廚，在全是主廚的教室裡煮他自己版本的Amatriciana。那名羅馬主廚不只加了洋蔥，還加了一些的巴薩米可醋。對我來說實在是好吃極了，但所有的主廚全都罵翻了，我還沒聽過那麼多義大利人同時開罵。
(Repeat the Gricia recipe but add tomato sauce after sautéing the guanciale. The most typical and also my preference of pasta is Bucatini, more widely used in Rome, or you may choose to use spaghetti which is more widely used in Amatrice.)
The next pasta really needs no introduction, it is by far the most popular pasta of the four worldwide, Carbonara. I have had so many versions of this pasta I cant even count it. I remember skipping class in high school just to have it at an Internet café! It was absolutely delightful, but now I know it was cooked completely wrong. I didn’t care. At that time it might have been my favorite pasta. Carbonara consists of guanciale, pecorino, eggs, and pepper. The name of this dish derived from the Italian word carbonaro, meaning charcoal worker or coal miner. Legend has it that it was the carbonaro who created the dish by cooking it over a charcoal fire. Another version of the origin was that during the Second World War, the Allied soldiers in Italy were rationed powdered eggs, and they decided to share it with the Italians and voila, the Carbonara was born.
1) Cook the pasta in salted boiling water (I prefer spaghetti or rigatoni)
2) Cut the guanciale into strips, sauté until crispy, discard rind
3) Mix one egg per person (or substitute with two egg yolks for extra creaminess) with grated pecorino cheese to a thick paste
4) Toss pasta with guanciale in pan
5) Add fresh cracked pepper to pan
6) Off the fire, add the cheese and egg mixture into the pan and mix well until very creamy
7) Serve with a touch more Pecorino and pepper
Now we come to the last Beatle, Cacio e Pepe, meaning cheese and pepper. It is the simplest of them all, and quite possibly the most elegant. Consisting of only Pecorino Romano cheese, and fresh ground pepper. This one is by far the most ubiquitous in central and southern Italy. This pasta came from the shepherds who were gone from home for months at a time and could only cook with what they could carry with them on their journey. There is nothing more convenient than cheese and pepper, but it takes great skill to create a beautifully balanced sauce. My first interaction with Cacio e Pepe was through reading about Rome, and researching its food through basic travel guides. You honestly couldn’t read an article without coming across the famed Cacio e Pepe. I also kept hearing about it through my Italian friends who swear by it, and how their grandmothers make absolutely the best version of it. Cacio e Pepe certainly feels like it is the unmistakable iconic pasta dish of Rome.
最後要登場的義大利麵披頭四成員是胡椒起司麵（Cacio e Pepe）。相信字面上已經說明的相當清楚，就只有胡椒跟起司。Cacio e Pepe是所有披頭四成員中用料最極簡的，就只有綿羊起司與新鮮的研磨胡椒，不過卻也是最優雅的。Cacio e Pepe是中義與南義最普遍最家常的料理，它的起源是牧羊人因為得離家工作個把個月，要做吃的時就只有從背包找料，最方便擺在背包裡帶著走的就是起司跟胡椒了，不過要做出美味均衡的醬汁是相當考驗功力。我與Cacio e Pepe的第一次接觸其實是在讀旅遊書研究羅馬時。你研究羅馬很難不讀到大名鼎鼎的Cacio e Pepe。我不斷聽到我義大利的朋友跟我提他們有多愛這道麵，以及他們奶奶煮的才是最好吃的。Cacio e Pepe無庸置疑是最能代表羅馬的一道義大利麵。
Cacio e Pepe Recipe:
1) Cook the pasta in salted boiling water (I prefer tonnarelli – thick square spaghetti)
2) Add grated pecorino off fire to the pan with a ladle of pasta water and stir vigorously
3) Add fresh cracked pepper to cheese mixture
4) Toss pasta with the cheese and pepper mix off the fire
5) Adjust amount of cheese and pasta water to attain a beautifully creamy texture
6) Serve with another generous sprinkle of Pecorino
Cacio e Pepe的作法是：
I have had these pastas, aside from the Gricia, many many times in my life, but never from have I had it in Rome. I was dying to know what the authentic stuff tasted like. Along with my cooking school buddies Joe the Abruzzian, and Vito the Apulian, who were as obsessed as I was, we decided that we needed to taste these four pastas together, once and for all. On a long weekend, we zipped down to Rome from Parma in the prettiest Alfa Romeo intentionally disregarding all speed limits. We were going to find out exactly how the Romans prepared it, cooked it, and ate it. We raced down with one thing on our mind: Pasta. Following the directions given to us by our professor, we arrived at a little restaurant in the Testaccio area of Rome called Flavio al Velavevodetto. It was one of those cozy places where the service was warm, the atmosphere was boisterous, and grappa was left at your table. Forgetting these portions were Roman trattoria size, four mountains of pasta arrived at our table. The Beatles have touched down. Our first instinct was to go for the Rigatoni alla Gricia because it was the original, and because none of us have had it before. After our first bite, we paused. There was a beautiful richness and crunch from the guanciale with a silky tang of pecorino, and probably the most al dente pasta that ever met my teeth. These Romans don’t joke around with the level of al dente. Tonnarelli al Cacio e Pepe was next. It is maybe the most storied Roman pasta, and we wanted to know why. The beauty really was in its simplicity. The cheese was beautifully glistening on the pasta and a bold, unapologetic hit of fresh cracked pepper smacked you in the face. It was definitely not trying to be shy, much like the Romans. Spectacular.
除了Gricia外，我在人生中我吃過這些義大利麵很多次，不過從沒在羅馬當地吃過，我實在很想嚐嚐這四位披頭四最道地正宗的滋味。我就跟我餐飲學校的好兄弟，來自阿布魯佐大區的Joe與來自阿普利亞大區（Apulia）的Vito，跟我一樣對義大利麵都超級狂熱的兩個人，我們就決定一同前往羅馬品嚐。我們就在一個連假週末，駕著超級漂亮的Alfa Romeo故意不管限速一路從帕馬狂飆到羅馬。我們就是要找出羅馬人到底是怎麼備料、怎麼煮、甚至是怎麼吃這四種麵。我們就照著教授的指示來到位在羅馬泰斯塔西奧區（Testaccio）的小餐廳 Flavio al Velavevodetto，舒適，服務熱忱，氣氛熱鬧，渣釀白蘭地就直接擺在桌上隨你喝。四位披頭四成員本尊終於降臨在我們面前，不過我們忘記了羅馬餐館上菜都是上很大盤，所以送上的四盤麵各個份量都像座山一樣。直覺告訴我們第一個要吃的是Rigatoni alla Gricia，因為它是最正宗的，因為我們所有的人都吃過。咬下第一口後，我們全都暫停了，接著而來的便是口中醃嘴邊肉濃郁與香脆的滋味，以及綿羊起司絲滑卻又強烈奔放的氣味，麵的烹煮程度大概是我這輩子吃過最彈牙的。關於麵的彈牙度，羅馬人不是在跟你開玩笑的，真的是超級硬。
我們下一道嚐的是Tonnarelli al Cacio e Pepe，這一道大概是羅馬最有故事的義大利麵，我們想要找出到底為什麼。道理就在它的美味完完全全來自於它的極簡，可以看到綿羊起司在麵條上泛著光芒，一股強烈的新鮮碎胡椒滋味根本是沒在客氣，毫不保留直接襲上你的口腔。沒有什麼叫低調兩個字，就跟羅馬人愛好的風格一樣，講求與眾不同。
Two left: Carbonara and Amatriciana. These two heavyweights really do tell a very different story. One was the most internationally known of the bunch, and the other used tomato, arguably the most popular ingredient of all time in Italian cuisine. The Rigatoni alla Carbonara, though, was calling our name. All of us grew up eating it and we needed to know how the real deal was. We went in. Oh sweet heavens! All my memories of Carbonara from the past shattered in that moment. Only the sensation of this current one from eternal Rome stuck to me. There is no poached egg, no cream, no ham or mushrooms and for heavens sake no peas. The dish was an enchanting combination of flavor and texture. Every strand of pasta is coated with enough sauce to make your mouth pucker. The creaminess came from only these ingredients and nothing more. No cream ever touched this plate. The porky aroma of the guanciale along with the egg and cheese was really reminiscent of a hearty breakfast, a wonderfully comforting feeling.
還剩下兩道─Carbonara與Amatriciana，這兩位重量級台柱都代表不同意義，一個是四種麵中全球最知名的，另一個是用上了番茄─可說是義大利料理中使用最頻繁的食材。Rigatoni alla Carbonara召喚著我們，因為我們所有人都是吃這個麵長大的，有必要感受一下最正宗的到底是什麼感覺。一吃宛如踏進天堂，我過往所有對Carbonara的印象頓時煙消雲散，當下只留有這盤來自永恆的羅馬的Carbonara的感受。沒有水煮蛋，沒有奶油，沒有火腿或蘑菇，更沒有加什麼會讓你傻眼的豌豆。這盤麵的風味和質地誘人，每一條麵都布滿醬汁讓你吃到讚嘆聲連連。這盤麵沒有用到任何一滴的奶油，濃郁感全是來自食材本身。醃嘴邊肉的豬肉香氣搭配上雞蛋和起司，讓人聯想到一頓豐盛的早餐，會讓人感到療癒的美好心情。
Lastly, the Rigatoni all’Amatricana awaited, the only one with tomatoes as an ingredient. We took a bite, and it was all smiles. How do you resist Italian tomatoes? It was a familiar taste, but much more powerful than we were used to. The flavor was sweet, deep, and so luscious. They say you haven’t really had a tomato until you’ve had an Italian tomato, and I couldn’t agree more. The acidity goes with the saltiness of the pecorino well, and a hint of chili flakes gives the dish a bit of vigor. There is no question why Amatriciana is beloved by all. It was the most hearty and most complete bowl of pasta. I could have this at anytime.
After copious glasses of terrific vino, my friends and I leaned all the way back in our seats with our tummies protruding. We realized that it was impossible to pick a favorite. The low key and lesser known of the four, Gricia, was a little shy and quieter than the others but full of flavor and history. Cacio e Pepe, simple, elegant and packs a mighty punch that never gets old, genius some might say. Then there’s the fiercely popular Carbonara that comes with a bit of pizzazz and showmanship with its eggs, it always knows how to have a good time. And finally Amatriciana, held so dearly by the people sort of the glue that holds Roman cuisine together. These four classics are indispensable to Roman cuisine. The debate will go on as to how they originated and what is in the original recipe. Remember though, do as the Romans do: ALWAYS PECORINO, ALWAYS GUANCIALE and NEVER ADD CREAM.
喝完好多杯葡萄酒後，我跟我朋友全都脹著肚子往後仰倒進椅子裡，真的很難挑出一個最喜歡的。Gricia，披頭四中個性較低調、害羞、安靜較不那麼有名的，不過卻有飽滿的風味與豐富的歷史。Cacio e Pepe，簡單又優雅，有永遠都能讓人感到動容的才華，根本就是天才。再來就是超受歡迎的Carbonara，華麗、討喜，永遠都有讓所有人快樂的魔力。最後就是羅馬人都深深喜歡的Amatriciana，一盤能牽起羅馬各式美食的麵。這四種經典的義大利麵中，每一種都是羅馬不可或缺的美食。到底是怎麼起源？誰的食譜才是最正宗？一樣，大家依舊會持續辯論下去。不管如何請記得，「羅馬人怎麼做你就怎麼做」，一定只用綿羊起司，一定只用醃嘴邊肉，而且絕對不能加奶油。